Re: how does stress/oxidation cause protein manifestation?
From my review of the evidence, many if not most people (especially as they get older) may be deficient in the mineral co-factors to SOD and glutathione, rather than being deficient in the enzyme (which the body can make, unlike the minerals, which the body cannot make). Here are some papers/reports that might interest you (the last suggests that dietary interventions may be very helpful):
Originally Posted by Aion
Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Apr 15;28(8):1243-8.
Plasma antioxidants and longevity: a study on healthy centenarians.
Mecocci P, Polidori MC, Troiano L, Cherubini A, Cecchetti R, Pini G,
Straatman M, Monti D, Stahl W, Sies H, Franceschi C, Senin U.
Sezione di Gerontologia e Geriatria, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e
Sperimentale, Universita di Perugia, Perugia, Italy. firstname.lastname@example.org
A large body of experimental research indicates that oxidative stress
contributes to the processes related to aging and to the pathogenesis
of several age-related diseases. Vitamins and antioxidant enzymes have
a fundamental role in defending the organism from oxidative stress. To
better understand the role of antioxidants in human aging, we measured
plasma levels of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), uric acid, vitamin E
(alpha-tocopherol), vitamin A (retinol), carotenoids, total thiol
groups, and the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and
glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as well as the activity of red blood cell
(RBC) SOD in 32 healthy centenarians-17 elderly subjects aged 80-99
years, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-79 years, and 24 adults aged less
than 60 years. Considering the "noncentenarians" only, we observed a
consistent behavior in the antioxidant pattern, with a decrease of the
nonenzymatic antioxidants and an increase of the enzymatic antioxidant
activities relative to age. Remarkably, centenarians were characterized
as having the highest levels of vitamins A and E, whereas the
activities of both plasma and RBC SOD, which increase with age,
decreased in centenarians. From these results, it is evident that
healthy centenarians show a particular profile in which high levels of
vitamin A and vitamin E seem to be important in guaranteeing their
Ann Clin Biochem. 2011 May 5. [Epub ahead of print]
"Role of certain trace minerals in oxidative stress, inflammation, CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratios and lung function in asthmatic patients."
Guo CH, Liu PJ, Hsia S, Chuang CJ, Chen PC.
BACKGROUND: Asthma is associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress and abnormal immune system function. We determined the distributions of several essential trace minerals and assessed their relationships to factors that are associated with the pathophysiological status of patients with mild/moderate asthma.
METHODS: We enrolled 25 asthmatic patients and 25 healthy subjects. We measured: blood trace minerals, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se); oxidative stress markers thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); antioxidant enzyme activities; percentages of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subsets; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); and a lung function index (FEV1/FVC%).
RESULTS: Compared with healthy subjects, asthmatics had lower concentrations of Zn and Se; higher Cu concentrations, and Cu/Zn and Cu/Se ratios; and lower antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase activities. Significantly increased concentrations of hs-CRP, TBARS and CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratios were also observed. Furthermore, plasma TBARS or hs-CRP concentrations were negatively associated with Se concentrations, but were positively associated with Cu/Se ratios. CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratios were inversely correlated with Se, while it was positively correlated with Cu/Se ratio. FEV1/FVC% was also significantly correlated with Se concentrations, and Cu/Se and Cu/Zn ratios.
CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal distributions of these trace minerals may aggravate oxidative damage and inflammation, increased CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratios and decreased lung function in asthma.
QUOTE: SOD is an interesting oxidative defense enzyme, since it takes one harmful ROS, superoxide, and converts it to another ROS, hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the dismutation reaction that it catalyzes occurs spontaneously in its absence. One explanation for the importance of this enzyme in oxidative defense is that it helps to shunt the superoxide in the direction of other ROS and away from the formation of lipid hydroperoxides or the RNI peroxynitrite. UNQUOTE.
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