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Thread: how does stress/oxidation cause protein manifestation?

  1. #11
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    Default Re: how does stress/oxidation cause protein manifestation?

    In this publication, Aquaro shows that the presence of P24 (which he connects to HIV) undoubtedly depends on the presence of peroxynitrite, which are the main responsible of nitrogenous oxidative stress.

    http://www.retrovirology.com/content...-4690-4-76.pdf

  2. #12
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    Default Re: how does stress/oxidation cause protein manifestation?

    Aquaro is not a dissident.

    But his findings can logically connect the assertions of Peter Duesberg, Klaus Koehnlein and David Rasnick (http://www.whale.to/a/koehnlein.pdf) on chemicals involved in the onset of AIDS to proteins that are increased in seropositive people.

    Poppers are nitrites. They decompose spontaneously into NO (nitric oxide). They thus provide an excess of NO, which reacts extremely rapidly with superoxide ion (see review by Koppenol) to give the famous peroxynitrite, which is intimately associated with the P24.

    In general, chemists show that all the nitrogen compounds where the nitrogen is linked to elements more electronegative than carbon and hydrogen lead to the formation of NO.
    For example, azides, formed by three nitrogen atoms connected linearly, undoubtedly lead to NO. The best known of azides is AZT .

    It is certainly true for amine oxides obtained by metabolic oxidation of tertiary amines (cocaine) or hydroxylamines obtained by metabolic oxidation of secondary amines (amphetamines) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amine_oxide)

    Compounds capable of destroy peroxynitrite are sulfur compounds (glutathione, epivir) and activated aromatic rings (green tea polyphenols, but also lopinavir).

  3. #13
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    Default Re: how does stress/oxidation cause protein manifestation?

    Eleni Papadopulos, of The Perth Group provided this response to the OP's question:

    There is abundant evidence in the scientific literature on the relationship between redox and gene expression, that is, protein synthesis. However, the "HIV proteins" including p24, are present in all of us. The only difference between those who test "HIV positive" and those who do not test "HIV positive" is the level of antibodies which react with these proteins.

  4. #14
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    Default Re: how does stress/oxidation cause protein manifestation?

    I'm a bit confused by Ms.Papadopulos' answer. So we all have p24 proteins and varying levels of antibodies that react to this protein. Is it her theory that the antibodies to this protein come from oxidative stress? Transmission?

  5. #15
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    Default Re: how does stress/oxidation cause protein manifestation?

    Quote Originally Posted by totestornot View Post
    I'm a bit confused by Ms.Papadopulos' answer. So we all have p24 proteins and varying levels of antibodies that react to this protein. Is it her theory that the antibodies to this protein come from oxidative stress? Transmission?
    The paper from Aquaro shows that P24 come from oxidative stress, because peroxynitrite are among the most powerful oxidants.

  6. #16
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    Default Re: how does stress/oxidation cause protein manifestation?

    I wonder whether taking superoxide dismutase would reduce the expression of p24 ?
    Last edited by Aion; March 30th, 2012 at 12:36 PM. Reason: spelling, as usual.
    =Dissidence Is Conscience=

  7. #17
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    Default Re: how does stress/oxidation cause protein manifestation?

    Quote Originally Posted by Aion View Post
    I wonder whether taking superoxide dismutase would reduce the expression of p24 ?
    From my review of the evidence, many if not most people (especially as they get older) may be deficient in the mineral co-factors to SOD and glutathione, rather than being deficient in the enzyme (which the body can make, unlike the minerals, which the body cannot make). Here are some papers/reports that might interest you (the last suggests that dietary interventions may be very helpful):

    Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 Apr 15;28(8):1243-8.

    Plasma antioxidants and longevity: a study on healthy centenarians.

    Mecocci P, Polidori MC, Troiano L, Cherubini A, Cecchetti R, Pini G,
    Straatman M, Monti D, Stahl W, Sies H, Franceschi C, Senin U.

    Sezione di Gerontologia e Geriatria, Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e
    Sperimentale, Universita di Perugia, Perugia, Italy. geriat@unipg.it

    A large body of experimental research indicates that oxidative stress
    contributes to the processes related to aging and to the pathogenesis
    of several age-related diseases. Vitamins and antioxidant enzymes have
    a fundamental role in defending the organism from oxidative stress. To
    better understand the role of antioxidants in human aging, we measured
    plasma levels of vitamin C (ascorbic acid), uric acid, vitamin E
    (alpha-tocopherol), vitamin A (retinol), carotenoids, total thiol
    groups, and the activity of plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) and
    glutathione peroxidase (GPX) as well as the activity of red blood cell
    (RBC) SOD in 32 healthy centenarians-17 elderly subjects aged 80-99
    years, 34 elderly subjects aged 60-79 years, and 24 adults aged less
    than 60 years. Considering the "noncentenarians" only, we observed a
    consistent behavior in the antioxidant pattern, with a decrease of the
    nonenzymatic antioxidants and an increase of the enzymatic antioxidant
    activities relative to age. Remarkably, centenarians were characterized
    as having the highest levels of vitamins A and E, whereas the
    activities of both plasma and RBC SOD, which increase with age,
    decreased in centenarians. From these results, it is evident that
    healthy centenarians show a particular profile in which high levels of
    vitamin A and vitamin E seem to be important in guaranteeing their
    extreme longevity.
    ______________________

    Ann Clin Biochem. 2011 May 5. [Epub ahead of print]
    "Role of certain trace minerals in oxidative stress, inflammation, CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratios and lung function in asthmatic patients."
    Guo CH, Liu PJ, Hsia S, Chuang CJ, Chen PC.

    Abstract:

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress and abnormal immune system function. We determined the distributions of several essential trace minerals and assessed their relationships to factors that are associated with the pathophysiological status of patients with mild/moderate asthma.

    METHODS: We enrolled 25 asthmatic patients and 25 healthy subjects. We measured: blood trace minerals, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se); oxidative stress markers thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS); antioxidant enzyme activities; percentages of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte subsets; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP); and a lung function index (FEV1/FVC%).

    RESULTS: Compared with healthy subjects, asthmatics had lower concentrations of Zn and Se; higher Cu concentrations, and Cu/Zn and Cu/Se ratios; and lower antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase activities. Significantly increased concentrations of hs-CRP, TBARS and CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratios were also observed. Furthermore, plasma TBARS or hs-CRP concentrations were negatively associated with Se concentrations, but were positively associated with Cu/Se ratios. CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratios were inversely correlated with Se, while it was positively correlated with Cu/Se ratio. FEV1/FVC% was also significantly correlated with Se concentrations, and Cu/Se and Cu/Zn ratios.

    CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal distributions of these trace minerals may aggravate oxidative damage and inflammation, increased CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratios and decreased lung function in asthma.
    _________________________

    QUOTE: SOD is an interesting oxidative defense enzyme, since it takes one harmful ROS, superoxide, and converts it to another ROS, hydrogen peroxide. Moreover, the dismutation reaction that it catalyzes occurs spontaneously in its absence. One explanation for the importance of this enzyme in oxidative defense is that it helps to shunt the superoxide in the direction of other ROS and away from the formation of lipid hydroperoxides or the RNI peroxynitrite. UNQUOTE.

    Source: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC500878/
    My free site, dealing mostly with biological, health, dietary, and medical issues:
    [url]http://forum3.aimoo.com/TheScientificDebateForum[/url]

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